Dr. Khaled Abou El Fadl discusses the true meaning of kufr (an act of ingratitude) and what it means when we do not believe or act as if we are an extension of divinity. He explains why kufr is not just about atheism or violating laws, but about what happens when things like prayer and fasting do not increase one's faith or awareness of the umbilical relationship between a human being and his or her Creator. He elaborates on how Islam is being emptied of substance and how this is causing a crisis of faith among so many, especially Muslim youth. He talks about the threat of oppression upon the faith, and reminds us of the story of Moses, who was called by God to confront Pharoah, the oppressor and tyrant of his time. We live in a time full of oppression and tyrants, and we are reminded of the call to confront all tyrants and oppressors. What would have happened if Moses did not confront his tyrant? What is happening today, when Muslims will not confront their own modern-day tyrants? Delivered 10 May 2019.